The Priest in Union with Christ by Garrigou-Lagrange - Bibliography



Sacred Scripture

St. Paul. The Epistle to the Hebrews: Christ the Priest, v, 1-10; vii, 1-28. Christ the Victim, viii-x, 18.

St. Thomas. In Epist. ad Hebraeos, in cap. v, lect. 1 et 2; in cap. vii, lect. 1-4; in cap. viii, lect. 1-3; in cap. ix, lect. 1-5; in cap. x, lect. 1. Vost6, J. M. Studia Paulina, Rome, 1928: c. vi: Christus sacerdos, p. 110-141; c. vii: Christus victima, p. 142-187.

Papal Documents

Pius X. Letter to Catholic Priests (Exhortatio ad Clerum catholicum),

1908. Acta Apostolicae Sedis, t. 41, p. 555-577. Pius XI. Encyclical, The Catholic Priesthood (Ad catholici Sacerdotii fastigium), 1935. Acta Apostolicae Sedis, t. 28, p. 5-53.

Patristic Writings

St. Ambrose. De officiis Ministrorum, bk. 1, c. 48. P.L. 16. St. Augustine. Epistolae. P.L. 33: ep. 21, c. 88-90; ep. 22, c- 9°-94; ep. 29, c. 114-120; ep. 142, c. 583-585; ep. 208, c. 989-991; ep. 228, c. 1013-1019; ep. 266, c. 1089-1091. See also the General Index, P.L. 46: Sacerdos, Sacerdotium, c. 571; Sacrificium, c. 579-581. St. Bernard. De moribus et officio episcoporum, P.L. 182, 809-834. De Conversions ad Clericos, P.L. ibid., 833-856. Amongst his supplementary works Instructio Sacerdotis, P.L. 184, 771-792. St. Cyprian. Ep. 77, P.L. 4, 414-419.

St. Ephraem. De sacerdotio (ed. Lamy, S. Ephraem Syri hymni et

sermones, Malines, 1882-1902, III, 1-6). St. Gregory the Great. Liber regulae pastoralis, P.L. 77, 13-128. (Cf. Bishop Hedley. Lex Levitarum). Dialogorum libri quatuor, P.L. 77, 149-436.

St. Gregory of Nanzianzus. Oratio II, P.G. 35, 407-514. St. John Chrysostom. On the Priesthood (tr. by P. Boyle, C.M., Newman, 1943), P.G. 48, 623-692.


St. Paulinus of Nola. Ep. XI, P.L. 61, 188-199. St. Peter Damian. Op. XVIII, P.L. 145, 398-424.

4. Doctors of the Church

St. Albert the Great. De sacrificio Missae, ed. Borgnet, t. 38, pp. 1-189.

St. Thomas Aquinas. In Ep. ad Hebraeos, loc. cit. De Sacerdotio Christi in the Summa Theologica, Ilia, q. 22. De Sacrificio Missae, ibid., Ilia, q. 83. De Ordine, ibid., Suppl. q. 34-40. St. Robert Bellarmine. De Sacrificio Missae: De Controversiis, bk. V and VI. De Eucharistia, Coloniae Agrippinae, 1619, vol. iii, p. 779-964.

St. Francis of Sales. Treatise on the Love of God, Library of St. Francis of Sales, vol. ii, London: Burns, Oates and Wash-bourne.

St. Alphonsus Liguori. Selva, Opere, Turin, 1887, vol. iii, p. 5-297. Homo apostolicus, ibid., vol. vii, 1-753. Praxis Confessarii, 753-803. Life of St. Alphonsus of Liguori, by A. Berthe, 2 vols., Paris, 1900. (English translation by H. Castle. Dublin: James Duffy, 1905.)

5. Spiritual Writers of the French School Bossuet. Explication de la doctrine de l'Eglise sur la Messe. Charles de Condren. L'Idée du Sacerdoce de N. Seigneur Jesus Christ,

Paris, 1901.

J. J. Olier, founder of the Society of St. Sulpice. Traité de Saints

Ordres, Paris, 1928. H. S. Icard, Superior of St. Sulpice. Doctrine de Monsieur Olier expliquée par sa vie et par ses écrits, Paris, 2e ed., 1891.

6. Various Works

The Imitation of Christ, bk. iv.

Suarez. De statu perfectionis—De Religione, Pars II, Lyons, 1632, vol. 3 and 4.

Cardinal Bona. De sacrificio Missae, tractatus asceticus. Rome,

1659. (New edition, Marietti, Turin.) Giraud, Missionary Priest of Notre Dame de la Salette. Prêtre et Hostie, 5e ed., Paris, 1924. (English tr. by W. H. Mitchell: Jesus Christ, Priest and Victim. London: Burns, Oates and Washbourne, 1914.)

Achille Desurmont, C. SS. R. La Charité sacerdotale, 2 vol., Paris, 1906.

Blessed P.J. Eymard. Le Tres Saint Sacrament, 4 vol., Paris, 1872.

Ven. Joseph Frassinetti. Gesù Cristo regola del Sacerdote, Marietti, 1947. Manuale del parroco novello, 11a ed. (English tr. by W. Hutch: New Parish Priest's Practical Manual. Burns, Oates and Washbourne, London, 1898.)

J. Grimal, S. M. Le Sacerdoce et le sacrifice de N. Seigneur Jesus Christ, 4e ed. Paris, 1926, p. 90, 168, 255, 348. Avec Jésus formant en nous son prêtre, 2 vol., Lyons, 1925.

Cardinal Mercier. La Vie intérieure, appel aux âmes sacerdotales, Paris, 1919.

Perinelle, O. P. Le Sacerdoce, Paris, 1936.

Dom E. Vandeur, O.S.B. La Sainte Messe, notes sur la liturgie, Maredsous, 1912. (English tr. by Dom K. Gilbertson, O.S.B. The Holy Mass Popularly Explained. Burns, Oates and Wash-bourne, London, 1928.)

7. More Recent Works

A complete bibliography is to be found in the periodical Ami du Clergé, 23rd October, 1947, p. 733 ss. Especially noteworthy are the following—-

Anonymous. Vivere in Cristo, Milan, 2nd ed., 1941. Ut vitam habeant, l'Apostolato dell'Azione cattolica perchè gli uomini vivano in grazia di Dio, Rome, 1935.

Mgr. Ancel. La pauvreté du prêtre d'apris la vie et les écrits du V. Père Chevrier, Lyon-Paris, 1945.

Mgr. A. Bernareggi. Responsabilità del sacerdote nell'ora attuale, Rome, 1945.

Carpentier, S. J. La spiritualité du clergé diocésain: Nouvelle Revue Théologique, vol. 68, 1946, p. 192-277.

Abbe Grimand. La vie spirituelle du prêtre séculier, Paris, 1946.

Mgr. Guerry. Le clergé diocésain en face de sa mission actuelle d' Evangelisation, Rapport présenté à la Reunion des Cardinaux et Archevêques de France, 1944.

J. de Guibert, S.J. Séminaire ou Noviciat? Paris, 1938.

P. Philippe, O.P. La Tres Sainte Vierge et le Sacerdoce, Paris, 1947.

M. J. Nicolas, O.P. Sacerdoce diocésain et vie religieuse: Revue Thomiste, March, 1946.

Mgr. Richaud. Y a-t-il une spiritualité du Clergé diocésain? Paris, 1945-

Canon F. X. Maquart. Allons-nous vers une spiritualité nouvelle? Preface written by M. B. Lavaud, O.P. Rheims, 1948.

This last-named work is a commentary on those famous words of His Holiness Pius XII: "to the Missionaries of the great return": "It would be a serious mistake to rely primarily on so-called modern methods and ingenuity, and then to avail oneself of the spiritual strength of grace through prayer and penance only as a subsidiary help."


(References to the works of St. Thomas have been omitted owing to their frequent occurrence) Acts, intense: of theological virtues, 183, 185 Adoration: in the Mass, 81; purpose of sacrifice, 84 Ages of the spiritual life, see Direction, spiritual Aim of this work, vii ff.; 208

Alphonsus, St.: on celebration of Mass, 50; on direction of perfect souls, 187; on extraordinary graces, >88: on meditation, 176; on mortification, 173; on spiritual communion, 176; on spiritual direction in general, 167; on thanksgiving after Holy Communion, 175 Ambrose, St.: on excellence of the priestly grace, 113 Apologetics of Christ and the Apostles, 132 Apostolate: its threefold character, 130, 187

Aridity (sensible): a means of purification, 40: in prayer of beginners, 177;

rules during, 205 f.; sign of transition from discursive meditation, 181 Attraction, law of universal, 76

Augustine, St.: on carrying the cross, 64; his celebration of Mass, 52; on contempt, 206; on destruction of self-love, 43; on fidelity in details, 42, 179; on Holy Communion, 76; on imitation of Christ, 114; on opposition between love of God and self-love, 38; on sacrifice of self, 62 Avarice: see Self-love

Beginners: aridity in, 177; mental prayer of, x76 f.; mortification of, 173 f.; reception of sacraments by, 174 ft.; recollection in, 178; spiritual direction

of, 173 ff-

Benedict, St.: on purity of intention, 42 Bernard, St.: on spiritual direction, 168 Blessed Virgin: see Mary

Calvary: a true sacrifice, 6; continued in the Mass, 14, 53

Cassian: on spiritual direction, 167

Catherine of Sienna, St.: on the sacrilegious Mass, 50

Character of Holy Orders: differs from that of other sacraments, 17; indelible,

17; reason for its indelibility, 23 f.; its purpose, 16, 46 Charity: acceleration of, 76; of Christ in the Eucharist, 88 f.; of confessor, 163, 164; and the evil spirit, 201 f.; growth through Holy Communion, 76, 107; in members of Christ's mystical body, 34; nourished by Eucharist, 81; opposed to self-love, 37; order of, 91; of the perfect, 186; of the preacher, 154; required for fruitfulness of priest's ministry, 68; required for comfort of the poor, 113; outstanding sign of divine spirit, 207 f.; and spirit of God, 203; in spiritual director, 169; unlimited by reason of the supreme precept, 44 f.

Charles de Foucauld, Fr.: and the celebration of Mass, 53, 106; on the worship

given in the Mass, 117 Chevrier, Fr.: on the priest as another Christ, 66 f. Christ:

his death a true sacrifice, 6, 9

his habitual grace could be increased, 8

holiness of, 8

humanity of: instrument of all supernatural effects, 12

influence on his mystical body, 9

instrumental cause of grace, 30

intercession of, 30, 86

interior life in Eucharist, 87 ff.

Christ—(contd.) merits of, 30

preaching of: its authority, 122 f.; ordered to final end, 137; persuasive power of, I24f.; simplicity and humility of, 123 f.; spiritual attraction of, 124

priesthood of: according to St. Paul, 3; according to St. Thomas, 3; eternity of, 4; and his humanity, 3; and the hypostatic union, 4 f., 8; and offering of the Mass, toff.; most perfect of all priesthoods, 6 ff.; principal priest of sacrifice of Mass, it, 14; wills each act of consecration, 13 spirit of truth, love, and sacrifice, 82 f. united to his mystical body, 9

victim, 4, 5 f., 13, 57; union with him in Holy Communion, 75 f.; a victim in soul and body, 9

Communion: St. Augustine on, 76; belongs to completion of sacrifice, 73; daily reception of, 175; dispositions required for, 175; each Communion should be substantially more fervent, 55, 76, 107, 175; its foreshadowing in the Old Testament, 74 f.; fruits of, 150; Mary and, 103 f.; necessary for salvation, 73 f.; Fr. Olier on, 76 f.; received by Mary, 102; spiritual, 77 f., 176; thanksgiving after, 175; under both species, 73, 79; union with Christ as victim in, 75 f. Concupiscence, 193 f.: and self-love, 38, and note Confession: frequent reception of, 174: instituted by God, 150 f. Confessor: co-operates in integrity of confession, 163 f.; co-operates in sincerity of contrition, 164 f.; as doctor, 162; duties in granting or refusing absolution, 165 f.; as father, 162; as judge, 162 f.; qualities in, 161, 163; as teacher, 162 Confidence: in members of Christ's mystical body, 34; in preacher, 141; in

proficients, 182; required for perfection, 187 Consecration, act of: produced by Christ and priest together, 23 Consolations in prayer: in beginners, 177; detachment from, 182; and evil spirit, 202; in mental prayer, 39; their significance, 204; and spiritual gluttony, 177

Contemplation, infused: and illuminative way, 182, 183; signs of beginning of,

170, 181 f.; in victim souls, 187 Contemplation of divine mysteries: and Eucharistic worship, 91; required for preaching, 113, 121

Cross, carrying of: fruitful in priest's ministry, 55, 64 f.; in members of Christ's mystical body, 35; opposed to modern spirit, 67; varied forms of, 63

Denis: on excellence of priestly grace, 113 Derision in beginners, 180

Devil: and humility, 199; and mortification, 199; and natural love of God, 38;

seduces souls, 206; signs of spirit of, 191; and the theological virtues, 200 ff. Direction, spiritual: of beginners, 173 ff.: duties of person directed, 170 ff.; necessity of, 167 f.; during passive purification of senses, 182 f.; of the perfect, 18511'.; of proficients, 181 ff.; during spiritual aridity, 1771'. Director, spiritual: prudence in, 170; qualities of, 169 f.

Discernment of spirits, 190ff.; acquired and infused, 192; nature of the spirits of God, of human nature and of the devil, 190 f.; principle of, 192; signs of the divine spirit, 202 ff.; signs of the evil spirit, 199 ff.; signs of the spirit of nature, 193 ff.; subsidiary principles of, 204 f. Dominic, St.: his Mass, 105; preparation for preaching, 130

Egoism: see Self-love

Eloquence, sacred: 127 ff.; centred in the love of God, 137; characteristics of,

128; corruption and destruction of, I2gf.; purpose of, 134 Ephraem, St.: on the superiority of the priesthood to the angelic ministry, 48 Episcopate: not a distinct sacrament from priesthood, 16; sanctity becoming to, 45

Eucharist: Christ's interior life in, 87 ff.; and the theological virtues, 80 f.; see also Communion

Eucharistic Heart of Jesus: devotion towards, 85; prayer to, 89 note. Eucharistic vocation according to Blessed Peter Julian Eymard, 90 f. Eucharistic worship: Blessed Peter Julian Eymard on, 80 ff.; and the four ends of sacrifice, 83 ff.; the nourishment of faith, hope, charity, and religion, 80 f.; and Mary, 88, 101 ff.; and priestly perfection, 89 f. Extraordinary graces: St. Alphonsus on attitude towards, 188; and the evil

spirit, 207; not to be desired, 204 Eymard, Blessed Peter Julian: on Eucharistic worship, 80 ff.

Faith: essential for fruitfulness of priestly ministry, 68; evident in the spirit of sacred learning, 95; foundation of preacher's contemplation of divine mysteries, 121; in Mary, 102; in members of the mystical body, 34; nourished by the Eucharist, 80 f.; in preacher, 126 f.; and the spirit of the devil, 200; and the spirit of God, 203 Fault, predominant: definition and description of, 40 f.; recognition and destruction of, 4! ff. Faults of proficients, 183 f.

von Flue, Blessed Nicolaus; on self-surrender, 35

Formation, spiritual and intellectual, of priests, 92 ff; faults liable to occur

during, 92 f.; Mary's help during, 95 ff. Frances of Chantal, St.: aridity of, 107; ejaculatory prayer of, 178 Francis of Sales, St.: on aridity, 178; on ejaculatory prayer, 178; Mass of, 105; on need of spiritual direction, 168; on qualities in spiritual director, 169; on the reception of Holy Communion, 175 Fruitfulness of cross in priestly ministry, 55, 64 f.

Fruitfulness of priestly ministry and his union with Christ as victim, 61 f.

Gifts of the Holy Ghost: and the spirit of God, 190; increased by Holy Communion, i3i; and infused contemplation, 181 Gluttony, spiritual: in beginners, 177; St. John of the Cross on, 194; sign of self-love, 39

God, spirit of: description of, 190; evident in celebration of Mass, 198; signs

of, 202 ff.; and theological virtues, 203 Grace of priesthood: elevates priest above angels, 48, 112; eminent cause of its excellence, 108 f.; splendour of, 112 ff.; extends to all virtues, 116 ff.; extends to Heaven and Purgatory, ii6f.; fruitfulness of, 23; increase of, 22; influence on all souls and on the devils, 117; loss of, 17; in ministry of confession, 164; nature of, 18 ff, 46, in; proximate source of priestly holiness, 111f.; general purpose of, 16, 18, 46; primary purpose of, 109; secondary purpose of, 109 ff. Grace, sacramental : nature and purpose of, 18 ff. Grace, sanctifying: in all the faithful, 108; nature and purpose of, 18 Gregory of Nanzianzen, St.; priest must offer himself in Mass, 60 Gregory the Great, St.; priest must offer himself in Mass, 60

Happiness and the beatitudes, ix, 147 Holiness of Christ, 8

Hope: nourished by the Eucharist, 81; and the evil spirit, 201; and the divine spirit, 203

Humility: means of Christ living in us, 33; and the evil spirit, 199 f.; and the divine spirit, 203

Illuminative way, entrance into, 181 Incarnation: cannot be merited, 98; decree of, 97 f.

Intellect: directed by Mary, 95?.; enlightened by Christ's preaching, 122 ff.;

its possible defects in priestly training, 92 f. Intention, purity of: required to overcome predominant fault, 42

John Chrysostom, St.: on excellence of priestly grace, 113

John of the Cross, St.: on aridity, 178; on mortification, 174; on preaching, 142; on spiritual gluttony, 194; on transition from meditation to contemplation, 181

Learning, sacred, 95

Liberman, Fr.: and the celebration of Mass, 58

Life of Christ in his members: nature of, 30 ff.; opposed by self-love, 36 ff.;

practical consequences of, 32 ff.; testimony of Christ and St. Paul, 29 f. Litany of Eucharistic Heart, 89

Love of God: and Christ's life in his members, 34 f.; opposed by self-love, 36 ff.; unlimited, 44, 196

Manzella, John Baptist: on confidence, 34

Mary, Blessed Virgin: consecration to, 100 f.; could not merit her motherhood, 98; her Communion, 103; and the Incarnation, 97 f.; model of devotion to the Eucharist, 88, 101 ff.; her motherhood superior to priestly vocation, 79, 97; and offering of self to God, 72; a priest in the wide sense, 96, 99; spiritual mother of priests, 55, 95 ff., 99 f.; universal mediatrix of all graces, 95. 102

Mass: St. Alphonsus on hurried Mass, 50; St. Catherine of Sienna on sacrilegious Mass, 50; Fr. Charles de Foucauld on, 106, 117; celebrated with greater substantial fervour each day, 83; daily celebration of, 198 f.; different ways of celebrating, 49 ff.; St. Dominic's celebration of, 105; effects of worthy celebration of, 53 £; St. Ephraem on, 48; extends to Heaven and Purgatory, 116 f.; of St. Francis of Sales, 105; holiness required for celebration of, 47; St. John Fisher on, 50; St. John Mary Vianney on, 53, 106; Fr. Liberman on, 58; obstacle to devil, 117; offered by Christ, 10 ff, 14; of St. Philip, 52, 106; preparation for, 54; primary purpose of priestly ordination, 47; sacrilege in, 49 f.; of the saints, 105 ff; same sacrifice as Calvary, 14; of St. Thomas, 105; value of, 14, 53, 82 Mean, happy: in the virtues, 191; and mediocrity, 195 Mediation of Mary, 95, 102

Mediocrity, and the spirit of human nature, 191, 195

Meditation: during aridity, 177; in beginners, 176?.; in proficients, 181, 182 Merits: of Christ, 30; and consecration to Mary, too f.; of Mary, 99 Missions: in Christian countries, 158 f.; in pagan countries, 159 de Montfort, St. Louis Marie: on consecration to Mary, 100 Mortification: and destruction of predominant fault, 42 f., 174; exterior and interior in beginners, 173 f.; St. Gregory the Great on, 62; in modern times, 67 f.; St. Philip on, 174; Pius X on, 69; in priests, 66; shunned by human nature, 194; and the spirit of the devil, 199; and the spirit of God, 202 Motherhood of Ma^y: belongs to hypostatic order, 97; could not be merited, 98; foundation of all her graces, 98; foundation of devotion to Mary, 99; in same decree as the Incarnation, 97 f.; superior to priestly vocation, 97 Mystical body: influence of Christ on, 9; life of Christ in, 30 ff.; life of members in, 30 f.; offered in the Mass, 13, 57, 70; the sufferings of Christ and, 65; testimony of Christ and St. Paul, 29 f.

Nature, spirit of: description of, 190 f.; evil influence of, 198; and humility, 194; and mortification, 194; signs of, 193 ff.; and theological virtues, 196

Obedience: not encouraged by spirits of devil and human nature, 200, 208;

required in perfect souls, 188; sign of divine spirit, 203, 207 Occasions of sin, 166 Offering of Mass by Christ, 11, 14 Offering to Merciful Love of God, 72 Olier, Fr.: on the priest's Communion, 76 f.

Orders, Holy: confers grace and a character, 16; demands greater sanctity than the religious life, 45; denied by Protestants, 17; effects of, 46; foundation of priestly perfection, 45 f.; sacramental grace of, see Grace, sacramental; sanctity becoming to, 45

Panegyric, 157

Parables, Christ's use of, 124

Patience of the priest, 66

Paul of the Cross, St.: his life of suffering and reparation, 64, 107, 186 f. Peace, the result of the divine spirit, 203 Penance, spirit of, 63

Perfection: demanded by the supreme precept, 44 f.; and Eucharistic worship, 89 f.; necessary for devout celebration of Mass, 109; necessary for sanctification of the faithful, 109 f.; priestly obligation to tend to, 45 ff.; of priests in the Old Testament, 75; and the sacramental grace of Holy Orders, 111 f. Perseverance, final: cannot be merited, 86 Personality of saints lost in Christ, 31 Peter of Blois: on priest's offering in the Mass, 60 Petition: purpose of Eucharistic worship, 86

Philip, St.: celebration of Mass by, 52, 106; on confidence, 34; on mortification,

174; and preaching, 135 Pius X: on the spirit of sacrifice in priests, 69 Pius XI: on Christ's offering of the Mass, 11 Poverty: in the priest, 66; its true character, 174

Prayer: contemplative, see Contemplation; of Christ in the Eucharist, 86; ejaculatory, 178; in the name of Christ, 32 f.; mental prayer in beginners, 176 f.; mental prayer in proficients, 181, 182; in perfect souls, 188; required for fruitful preaching, 139 Preaching: actual graces for, 122

commission of priests for, 122 •

composition of sermons, 145 ff.

contemplation required for, 113, 121

corrupted by secular approach, 131

development of principal argument in, 151 ff.

directed to man's final end, 134 ff.

efficacy of, 139 ff.

example of Christ, see Christ.

expression of whole person,. 129

faith required for, 126 f.

monotony avoided in, 137 f.

must enlighten the mind, delight the affections, and inspire the will, 122 obstructed by self-love, 40 prayer and study required for, 130, 139 • purpose of, 134 ff.

sacred eloquence in, 127 ff. " secular approach to: its causes, 130; destroys sacred eloquence, 131; disastrous to preacher, 132; impedes redemption, 132; starves souls, 132 style in, 154 ff. subjects for, 14.3 ff. types of, 157 ff. Precept, supreme: binds all to unlimited love, vii, 44 f. Pride in devil, 199

Priest: obliged to tend to perfection, 45 ff.; power to forgive sin, 15; power of consecrating unsurpassed by episcopal power, 16; sanctity becoming to, 45, 109; union with Christ in celebrating Mass, 13 Priesthood: dignity unsurpassed by Episcopate, 22 f.; dignity evident in confessional, 23; instituted at Last Supper, 15; perpetuated by Apostles and successors, 15; primary purpose of, 47; superior to angelic ministry, 112 Priesthood of Christ, see Christ. Principle, formal ; of Christ's priesthood, 4, 8, 9

Proficients: characteristics of, 181 f.; faults of, 183 f.; spiritual direction of, 181 ff. Protestantism: inspired by evil spirit, 201; rejects priesthood, 17 Purgatory: Mass extends to, 116 f. Purifications, passive:

of the senses, 40, 181; spiritual direction during, 182 f. of the spirit, 185 f.; spiritual direction during, 186

Recidivists, 165 f.

Recollection: in beginners, 17!!; required for destruction of predominant fault, 43 Religious life: compared with priesthood, inferior to Episcopate, 99, note Reparation: in perfect souls, 186 1.; and sacrifice, 85 fñ see also Souls, victim Retreats, subjects for, 144, 159 f.

Sacraments: frequent reception of, 174 f.; instruments of grace, 30 Sacrifice: four ends of, 83 fl".; supreme act of religion, 81 Saints and their celebration of Mass, 105 ff. Sanctification of daily actions in. beginners, 178 Self-denial: see Mortification

Self-love: cause of, 36; deceitful character of, 36, 39 f.; destroys love of God, 38; destruction of, 40 ff.; manifest in predominant fault, 40; obstacle to interior life, 36; opposed to love of God, 37; source of triple concupiscence, 38, note, 194; and spirit of nature, 195 Sentimentality: and self-love, 39; and spirit of nature, 191

Sermons: arguments used in, 151; conclusion of, 149 f.; development of principal argument of, 151 ff.; division of, 150 f.: principal argument of, 147 ff.; style of, 154 ff.; subject-material for, 143 ff.; see also Preaching Silence, 151

Sin, original: its cffect, 36; wounds resulting from, 193 Sinners, habitual, 165

Sins, capital: consequences of, 194: roots of, 37; in spiritual order, 194 Sloth, spiritual: due to lack of generosity, 40

Souls, perfect: counsels to be given to, 187 f.; direction of, 185 ff.; and vocation

to reparation, 186 f. Souls, retarded, 40; reasons for, 179 f.

Souls, victim: St. Augustine on, 62; everyone called to be, 56 f.; examples in Old Testament, 59 f.; fulfil priestly vocation, 60; St. Gregory of Nanzianzen on, 60; St. Gregory Pope on, 60; and members of mystical body, 35; patience of, 66; perfection of, 71, note; and perfect souls, t86f.; Peter of Blois on, 60; all priests called to be, 56 ff., 110; and reparation, 85 f.; and vow of victim, 70 f.

Tauler: on spiritual direction, 169 Tepidity: see Souls, retarded

Teresa, St.: on avoiding deliberate faults, 188; on the benefits of contemplation, 113; on conformity to the divine will, 188; on meditation, 176; on mortification, 174; on the Pater Noster, 183; on qualities of spiritual director, 169; on spiritual communion, 176; on thanksgiving after Holy Communion,

^ 175 f'. . ... Thanksgiving: after Mass, 54; after hurried Mass, 51; after worthy celebration

of Mass, 52; purpose of sacrifice, 84 f.; sec also Communion.

Thercse, St.: offering to Merciful Love, 72

Union, hypostatic: formal principle of Christ's priesthood, 4, 8, 9 Union of priest with Christ: degrees of, 62 f.; exemplified in Christ's love for St. John, 54 f.; founded on his duties towards the mystical body and sacr.i-mental body of Christ, 46 ff.; founded on his ordination, 45, 208; and fruitfulness of priestly ministry, 68: fulfilment of priesthood, 113; St. Gregory of Nanzianzen on, 60; St. Gregory Pope on, 60; Fr. Liberman on, 58; .11 Mass, 13; at moment of consecration, 23, 48; Peter of Blois on, 60; Pius \ on, 69; as victim, 56 ff., 110; and his virtues, 78 Union of priest with Mary, 92 ff. Unitive way: entrance into, 185

Vanity in preacher, 130

Vianncy, St. John Baptist, on celebration of Mass, 53, 106

Vincent de Paul, St.: and method of preaching, 147; and self-love, 39

Vincent Ferrer, St.: and preaching, 140 f.; on spiritual direction, 168 Virtues, theological: and the Eucharist, 80 f.; lack of, 68; in Mary, 103; and the spirit of the devil, 200 ff.; and the spirit of God, 203; and die spirit of nature, 196; without limit, 196

Wounds of the soul: caused by original sin, 193 f.

Zeal: its lack in many priests, 68; reasons for this, 68

1  Cf. Council of Trent (Denz. 940): "For the victim (in the sacrifice of Calvary and in the sacrifice of the Mass) is one and the same: he who is now offering through the ministry of priests is the same person who then offered himself on the cross, only the manner of offering is different," in so far as the immolation is no longer accompanied by the shedding of blood, neither is it meritorious, but applies to us the merits of the Passion.

2  Cardinal dc B6rulle writes in his book Vie de Jésus, c. 26: "This first voluntary act of offering made by Jesus is not a transitory act like ours, but one which is permanent as depending on the nature and state of eternity. It is an everlasting act of the will which has never ceased day or night, which has never been disturbed or interrupted by any other act, but has always remained actual in his soul. Just as in that soul there is a perpetual life-giving movement, so also this interior and spiritual act of offering has been (and is) everlasting in the mind and heart of Jesus."

This act of self-offering endures in Christ in the same way as the Beatific Vision and the love and the worship which accompanies that vision; it is measured not by time but by the eternity in which it shares.

Cf. Bossuet Elevations sur Ies mysteres, 13th week, 7th Elevation: "From the moment that Jesus (entering this world) began this wonderful act (of self-offering), he has never discontinued it; from the time of his infancy and even from the time when he lay in his mother's womb he has remained in his state of victim completely resigned to the divine commands. . . . Let us, therefore, imitate the example of Jesus Christ in his attitude of victim and abandon ourselves without reserve to the will of God."

3  by the gifts J plation

 if Christian prudence and the gift of counsel

The moral virtues and their corresponding

I Temperance, chastity, humility

Cf. op cit., The Three Ages of the Interior Life, vol. 1, p. 321.

4  St. Augustine, De natura et gratia, t. 43, 11. 30—quoted by the Council of Trent (Denz. 804).

5  Cf. Fr. Giraud, op. cit., II, pp. 405-407, 411-414.

6  Ibid., II, 414.

7  Fr. Giraud gives ample proof of this in his book Prêtre et hostie, I, pp. 573-593. Refer also to the works of St. Paul of the Cross, the founder of the Passionists.

8 1 Leviticus vi, 8 and 12.

9  Enarr. in Ps. L, n. 21.

10  This question has already been discussed in my earlier work De sanctificatione sacerdotum secundum exigentias temporis nostri, but I am here considering it from the point of view of the priest's union with Christ, priest and victim.

11 * I have based my summary of the teaching of Blessed Peter Julian Eymard on his book Meditationes pro exercitiis spiritualibus, Turin, new edition, 1934—especially on the third volume.

12  It follows, therefore, thai if the Mother of God were to receive the priestly character she would be receiving something of less value than her original dignity, since it is a greater honour to give the Word his humanity and to offer with him the sacrificial shedding of blood on Calvary than to give him his real presence in the Eucharist and to offer with him the bloodless sacrifice of the Mass. Similarly, as St. Thomas rightly says, a bishop while able to be of service in the saving of souls would be adopting a less perfect vocation in entering the religious state, because the religious state is one in which a man is lending towards perfection, whereas a bishop should be actually exercising perfection. Summa, Ila Ilae, q. 185, a. 4, ad 1.

13  This—the common teaching of theologians—was sanctioned by Pius X in his encyclical Ad diem, 2nd February, 1904: cf. Denz. 1978a.

14  This is discussed by Fr. Justin of Miechow O.P. in his work: Discursus circa itanias lauretanas B. Mariae Virginis; vas insigne devotionis.

15  Cf. St. Thomas, Summa, III, q. 62, a. 2, and commentators; also Supplementum, q. 35, a. 1.

16  St. John Chrysostom writes in his treatise On the Priesthood, bk. vi, c. 4: "At that moment (of consecration) the Angels are present round the priest, the entire realm of heavenly powers raises its voice in praise, and choirs of Angels fill the sanctuary to do honour to him who is sacrificed." Also St. Gregory the Great, Dialog., bk. iv, c. 58: "Choirs of angels are present, the low and the high consort together, earth is joined to heaven, the seen and the unseen are united as one."

17  I know an excellent priest who has been preaching on the Rosary for many years to the spiritual benefit of innumerable souls. The secret of his amazing success lies in the fact that before he began he wrote to 150 convents of contemplative nuns, asking for their prayers and sacrifices. In consequence, his preaching has been strengthened by these prayers and sacrifices which obtain grace for his hearers.

18  Cf. St. Alphonsus, Praxis Confessarii; and St. Charles Borromeo in the course of his instructions: Quae in ministratione sacramenti Poenitentiae parochus et confessarius observet.

19  Introduction to the Devout Life, Part I, c. 4.

8 Reproduced from Allison Peer's translation, by kind permission of the publishers—Sheed and Ward.

20  Cf. St. Alphonsus, Praxis confessarii, c. 9, Part iii, n. 145, 147; Part iv, nn. 148-155; Saudreau, The Degrees of the Spiritual Life, English tr., vol. 1, bks. 1-3; and the author's previous work, The Three Ages of the Interior Life, English tr., vol. 1, pp. 258 ff.

21  Cf. Saudreau, op. cit., I, p. 76.

1 Cf. Saudreau, op. cit., I, pp. 38-41; and my earlier work, The Three Ages of the Interior Life, I, p. 461.

22  Cf. St. John of the Cross, The Dark Might of the Soul, bk. I, c. 10. Also, The Three Ages of the Interior life, vol. II, p. 54.

23  St. John of the Cross speaks of these failings and afflictions in The Dark Night of the Soul, bk. II, c. 7 and 8. Cf. op. cit., The Three Ages of the Interior Life, English tr., II, p. 356.

An excellent book on this subject has been written by Fr. L. de Bretagne, La vie réparatrice, Paris, Libraire St. Paul, 3c ed., 1934. 1 Praxis confessarii, n. 160, p. 275.